India: Foreign Minister Jaswant Singh and Finance Minister Yashwant Sinha exchange their posts in a cabinet reshuffle. Home Minister Lal Krishna Advani takes the additional post of deputy prime minister.
Netherlands Antilles: Frits Goedgedrag takes office as governor.
Switzerland: Elsbeth Schneider-Kenel becomes president of the government of Basel-Land, Leo Odermatt Landammann of Nidwalden, Hans Hofer Landammann of Obwalden, Peter Sch鰊enberger president of the government of Sankt Gallen, and Friedrich Huwyler Landammann of Schwyz.
Madagascar: Marc Ravalomanana's army takes the city of Antsiranana. The provincial governor, Jean-Robert Gara (a supporter of Didier Ratsiraka as president), fled on July 1. On July 13 Pascal Jaosoa is installed as governor. Meanwhile, on July 5, Ratsiraka flees the country, and the last pro-Ratsiraka forces announce their surrender in Toamasina. On July 10 蒻ile Tsizaraina is named governor of Toamasina, replacing Ravalomanana's previous appointee, Victor Sikonina, who is dismissed without having been installed.
Philippines: Vice President Teofisto Guingona resigns as foreign secretary, effective July 15. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo then takes over the post temporarily. On July 24 she names Blas Ople as new foreign secretary, who takes office July 30.
Poland: Finance Minister Marek Belka announces his resignation. Grzegorz Kolodko is named as new finance minister on July 5.
Italy: Interior Minister Claudio Scajola resigns. Giuseppe Pisanu is named as new interior minister.
New Caledonia: Daniel Constantin replaces Thierry Lataste as high commissioner.
Venezuela: Jos?Luis Prieto is named defense minister.
Ecuador: Rodolfo Barniol is sworn in as interior minister.
Mayotte: Jean-Jacques Brot replaces Philippe de Mester as prefect.
The Netherlands: Queen Beatrix asks Jan Peter Balkenende to form a new government. He is sworn in as prime minister on July 22 along with his cabinet including Jaap de Hoop Scheffer as foreign minister, Hans Hoogervorst as finance minister, Benk Korthals as defense minister, and Johan Remkes as interior minister.
Croatia: Prime Minister Ivica Racan resigns. He is reappointed by President Stipe Mesic on July 10. Parliament approves the new government on July 30; Zeljka Antunovic becomes defense minister.
Togo: In a cabinet reshuffle, Kossi Assimaidou becomes finance minister.
United States: Former Kentucky governor (1987-91) Wallace Wilkinson dies.
India: Former chief minister of Himachal Pradesh (1977, 1980-83) and governor of Andhra Pradesh (1983-84) Thakur Ram Lal dies.
India: M. Rama Jois is named as new governor of Jharkhand. He takes office July 15.
Guatemala: Interior Minister Eduardo Ar関alo resigns. Adolfo Reyes is appointed in his place.
India: Maharashtra Governor P.C. Alexander resigns. C.K. Thakkar is sworn in as acting governor on July 13.
Organization of African Unity: The organization becomes the African Union, with South African president Thabo Mbeki as first chairman.
Peru: Foreign Minister Diego Garc韆 Say醤 resigns, ahead of an expected cabinet reshuffle. On July 11 Prime Minister Roberto Da駃no and Finance Minister Pedro Pablo Kuczynski also say they quit. On July 12 President Alejandro Toledo swears in a new cabinet including Luis Solari as prime minister, Allan Wagner Tiz髇 as foreign minister, and Javier Silva Ruete as finance minister.
Spain: In a cabinet reshuffle, Ana Palacio is named foreign minister and 羘gel Acebes interior minister. The new ministers are sworn in July 10.
Canada: Former lieutenant governor of Quebec (1978-84) Jean-Pierre C魌?dies.
Saint Helena: The administrator of Ascension, Geoffrey Fairhurst, departs. Matt Young becomes acting administrator.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Simeun Vilendecic is appointed to replace Milenko Vracar as finance minister of the Republika Srpska.
South Korea: President Kim Dae Jung names Chang Sang as prime minister and Lee Jun as defense minister in a cabinet reshuffle. Parliament rejects Chang Sang on July 31, whereupon Deputy Prime Minister Jeon Yun Churl becomes acting prime minister.
Lesotho: Timothy Thahane is sworn in as new finance minister.
Turkey: Foreign Minister Ismail Cem resigns. On July 12 Prime Minister B黮ent Ecevit names S黭r?Sina G黵el as foreign minister.
Zambia: Foreign Minister Katele Kalumba resigns. On July 19 Kalombo Mwansa is sworn in as foreign minister.
Central African Republic: Prime Minister Martin Zigu閘?takes on the additional post of finance minister, replacing Eric Sorongop?
Czech Republic: President V醕lav Havel appoints Vladim韗 Spidla as prime minister. On July 15 the new cabinet is sworn in, including Cyril Svoboda as foreign minister and Bohuslav Sobotka as finance minister; Jaroslav Tvrd韐 remains defense minister and Stanislav Gross interior minister.
India: Former Gujarat chief minister (1972-73) Ghanshyam Oza dies.
Peru: Former prime minister (1987-88, 1989-90) and foreign minister (1989-90) Guillermo Larco Cox dies.
Argentina: Former governor of Mendoza (1983-87) Santiago Felipe Llaver dies.
Dominican Republic: Former president (1960-62, 1966-78, 1986-96) Joaqu韓 Balaguer dies.
Mali: In the first round of parliamentary elections, only 22 of 147 seats are decided: former president Alpha Oumar Konar?s Alliance for Democracy in Mali (ADEMA) wins 10 seats, former prime minister Ibrahim Boubacar Keita's Hope 2002 coalition also wins 10, and President Amadou Toumani Tour?s Coalition for Change and Democracy 2.
Czech Republic: Igor Nemec is elected mayor of Praha (31-15).
The Netherlands: Former foreign minister (1956-71) Joseph Luns (also secretary-general of NATO, 1971-84) dies.
Germany: Chancellor Gerhard Schr鰀er dismisses Defense Minister Rudolf Scharping. The next day Peter Struck takes office as defense minister.
India: In the election of a president by 4,896 members of the national and state parliaments, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam wins 4,152 votes to the value of 922,884 (89.6%), while the only other candidate, Lakshmi Sehgal, wins 459 votes to the value of 107,366 (10.4%). Kalam takes office July 25.
India: The chief minister of Gujarat, Narendra Modi, resigns.
India: K.R. Malkani is appointed as new lieutenant governor of Pondicherry; he is sworn in on July 31.
Liberia: Charles Bright takes office as finance minister, replacing Nathaniel Barnes.
Peru: Former prime minister and foreign minister (1963-65, 1983-84) Fernando Schwalb L髉ez Aldana dies.
Uruguay: Economy and Finance Minister Alberto Bensi髇 resigns. New minister Alejandro Atchugarry is sworn in on July 24.
United Nations: S閞gio Vieira de Mello (Brazil) is elected new high commissioner for human rights, to take office in September.
Albania: Alfred Moisiu takes office as president. On July 25 Prime Minister Pandeli Majko resigns. On July 31 parliament approves (81-48) a new government with Fatos Nano as prime minister, Majko as defense minister, Ilir Meta as foreign minister, and Luan Rama as interior minister; Kastriot Islami remains finance minister.
Spain: Jos?Luis Olivas Mart韓ez becomes president of the Generalitat of Valencia.
Tuvalu: Nine of 15 MPs are reelected in parliamentary elections. Prime Minister Koloa Talake and three of his ministers lose their seats.
Vietnam: The National Assembly elects Truong My Hoa as vice president.
India: Vice President Krishan Kant dies.
New Zealand: In parliamentary elections, Prime Minister Helen Clark's Labour Party wins 41.4% of the vote (52 of 120 seats), the National Party 21.1% (27), New Zealand First 10.1% (13), ACT New Zealand 7% (9), United Future 7% (9), and the Green Party 6% (8).
Nigeria: Former governor of Ondo (1996-98) and Edo (1998-99) Anthony Onyearugbulem dies.
Mali: In the second round of parliamentary elections, the Alliance for Democracy in Mali wins 57 seats and the Hope 2002 coalition 37 seats. Turnout is 25.7%.
Papua New Guinea: In parliamentary elections held from June 15 to July 29, Sir Michael Somare's National Alliance Party wins 19 of 109 seats and Prime Minister Sir Mekere Morauta's People's Democratic Movement 10. Governor-General Sir Silas Atopare asks Somare to form a government.
Solomon Islands: In a cabinet reshuffle, Nollen Leni replaces Alex Bartlett as foreign minister.
French Guiana: Ange Mancini is named to replace Henri Masse as prefect.