India: Tamil Nadu Governor Fathima Beevi resigns. Andhra Pradesh Governor Chakravarti Rangarajan is given additional charge of Tamil Nadu; he takes office July 3.
Somalia: Yusuf Haji Nur is declared acting president of Puntland after Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed's attempt to extend his term was declared unconstitutional.
Switzerland: Peter Schmid becomes president of the government of Basel-Land, Paul Niederberger Landammann of Nidwalden, Josef Nigg Landammann of Obwalden, and Kathrin Hilber Landammann of Sankt Gallen.
United Kingdom: Northern Ireland First Minister David Trimble resigns. Sir Reg Empey becomes acting first minister.
Lithuania: Parliament approves former president Algirdas Brazauskas as prime minister (84-45). His cabinet, including Dalia Grybauskaite as finance minister and Juozas Bernatonis as interior minister, is sworn in on July 12.
Portugal: Guilherme d'Oliveira Martins takes office as finance minister and Rui Pena as defense minister.
Switzerland: Luigi Pedrazzini takes office as president of the Council of State of Ticino.
Tanzania: The vice president since 1995 (and chief minister of Zanzibar 1988-95) Omar Ali Juma dies. President Benjamin Mkapa names Ali Mohamed Shein as new vice president on July 13.
Lesotho: In a cabinet reshuffle, Mohlabi Tsekoa becomes finance minister, replacing Kelebone Albert Maope.
Marshall Islands: In a cabinet reshuffle, Gerald Zackios replaces Alvin Jacklick as foreign minister.
Croatia: Defense Minister Jozo Rados resigns.
Turkmenistan: Foreign Minister Batyr Berdiyev is sacked. Rashid Meredov is appointed foreign minister.
Albania: In the second round of parliamentary elections, the Socialist Party wins 44 seats and the Union for Victory coalition 30.
Mexico: In Baja California, Eugenio Elorduy Walther (National Action Party) is elected governor with 48.7% of the vote against 36.7% for Daniel Quintero Pe馻 (Institutional Revolutionary Party). Turnout is 36.6%.
Organization of African Unity: Zambian President Frederick Chiluba becomes chairman. On July 10 former C魌e d'Ivoire foreign minister Amara Essy is elected secretary-general; he is sworn in the next day and will take office in September.
Bangladesh: Former foreign minister (1985-88) Humayun Rasheed Chowdhury dies.
El Salvador: Former president (1982-84) 羖varo Alfredo Maga馻 Borja dies.
Indonesia: Agum Gumelar becomes defense minister in a cabinet reshuffle.
Italy: Salvatore Cuffaro takes office as president of Sicilia.
Switzerland: Former president of the government of Bern (1950-51, 1961-62) Samuel Brawand dies.
Haiti: Former president (1950-56) Paul Eug鑞e Magloire dies.
Nepal: Home Minister Ram Chandra Poudel resigns.
Solomon Islands: David Sitai is named foreign minister.
Bangladesh: Latifur Rahman is sworn in as head of a caretaker administration, holding the title of chief adviser. A new cabinet is sworn in July 16; Rahman holds the foreign and home affairs ministries and Hafiz Uddin Khan the finance ministry.
Bulgaria: President Petur Stoyanov asks Simeon Sakskoburggotski (former king Simeon II) to form a new government. He is sworn in July 24. His cabinet includes Solomon Passy as foreign minister, Nikolay Svinarov as defense minister, Milen Velchev as finance minister, and Georgi Petkanov as interior minister.
Russia: In gubernatorial elections in Nizhny Novgorod oblast, Gennady Khodyrev wins 24.4% of the vote against 20.8% for incumbent Ivan Sklyarov. Turnout is 37.3%. In the runoff on July 29 Khodyrev wins 59.8% and Sklyarov 28.3%, with about 10% voting against both candidates; turnout is about 38%.
Croatia: The government of Prime Minister Ivica Racan survives a confidence vote (93-36).
Yugoslavia: President Vojislav Kostunica names Finance Minister Dragisa Pesic to become the new prime minister. Parliament approves his cabinet on July 24. Goran Svilanovic, Zoran Zivkovic, and Slobodan Krapovic continue as foreign, interior, and defense ministers respectively; Jovan Rankovic becomes finance minister.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Foreign Minister Zlatko Lagumdzija is elected new prime minister.
Nepal: Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala resigns. Sher Bahadur Deuba is appointed prime minister on July 22 and sworn in July 26. He also takes over the foreign and defense ministries, while Khum Bahadur Khadka becomes home minister; Ram Sharan Mahat remains finance minister.
Yugoslavia: Former secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Macedonia (1963-69) Krste Crvenkovski dies.
Indonesia: The People's Consultative Assembly sacks President Abdurrahman Wahid and elects Vice President Megawati Sukarnoputri as new president. On July 26 Hamzah Haz is elected new vice president.
Uganda: A new cabinet is sworn in. Foreign Minister Eriya Kategaya becomes minister of internal affairs, James Wapakhabulo becomes foreign minister and Amama Mbabazi defense minister, while Gerald Ssendaula continues as finance minister.
Austria: Former chancellor (1964-70) Josef Klaus dies.
Dominica: Former acting president (1979-80) Jenner Armour dies.
American Samoa: Former governor (1961-67) Hyrum Rex Lee dies.
Moldova: Foreign Minister Nicolae Cernomaz is dismissed.
Pakistan: Former foreign minister (1991-93) Siddique Khan Kanju is shot dead by four assailants.
Peru: Alejandro Toledo takes office as president. Roberto Da駃no becomes prime minister, Diego Garc韆 Say醤 foreign minister, David Waisman defense minister, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski finance minister, and Fernando Rospigliosi interior minister.
United States: Former Kansas governor (1991-95) Joan Finney dies.
Poland: Former first secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party (1970-80) Edward Gierek dies.
Russia: In the first round of gubernatorial elections in Irkutsk oblast, incumbent Boris Govorin receives 45% of the vote and Sergey Levchenko 24%. Turnout is 32.3%. A second round will take place August 19.
S鉶 Tom?and Pr韓cipe: Fradique de Menezes wins presidential elections with 56.3% of the vote against 38.7% for former president Manuel Pinto da Costa. Turnout is 62.4%. Menezes will take office September 3.
Andorra: Former foreign minister (1994-97) Manuel Mas Rib?dies.
Venezuela: Nelson Merentes is sworn in to succeed Jos?Rojas as finance minister.
Portugal: Former president (1974-76) Francisco da Costa Gomes dies.